德国农民合作社考察及其启示
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国家外国专家局项目“农民合作社运行管理培训”(P183020009);农业农村部财政项目(人文类)“农民合作社助力乡村组织振兴研究”(10190008)。


Special Investigation of and Enlightenment from German Farmer Cooperatives 
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    摘要:

    德国是合作社的发源地之一。基于为期两周的德国合作社专题考察,梳理了德国农民合作社的适应性特点、趋势特征及其社会背景体系,发现德国农民合作社具有层级组织体系化完备化、产业类型多样化专业化、服务内容全面化多元化、日常运行制度化体系化、服务地域稳定化与产业发展有机化等适应性特点以及企业化日益明显、绝对数量趋于减少、规模实力趋于增强、经营团队趋于专业、盈余分配趋于多样等趋势性特征,并且遍布全德的农民协会体系、完善的社会保障体系、健全的社会化服务体系以及良好的社会诚信体系构成了驱动和保障农民合作社持续健康发展的“四轮”。针对我国农民合作社量质增长不同步、成员异质性增加、扶持政策不完善、服务型合作社少、属性争论不定等问题,提出促进我国农民合作社质量提升、为其创造宽松发展环境、打造“四轮”驱动发展机制、鼓励农民深度联合与合作等建议。

    Abstract:

    Germany is one of the birthplaces of cooperatives. Based on a two-week special survey of German cooperatives,this paper focuses on the adaptive characteristics,trend characteristics and social system background of German farmers’ cooperatives. It is found that the German farmers’ cooperatives have the following adaptability characteristics:complete hierarchical organization system,diversified and specialized industrial types,comprehensive and diversified service content,institutionalized daily operation system,regional stability of service and organic industrial development. It also has the trend characteristics of growing enterprise-orientation,decreasing absolute quantity,increasing scale strength,increasingly professional management team and diversified earnings distribution. Moreover,the farmer association system,perfect social security system,perfect social service system and good social credit system all over Germany constitute the “four rounds” to drive and guarantee the sustainable and healthy development of farmer cooperatives. Finally,the paper summarizes and analyzes the problems and challenges faced by the farmers’ cooperatives in China,such as the unsynchronized growth of quantity and quality,the increasing heterogeneity of members,the imperfection of supporting policies,the lack of service-oriented cooperatives,and the indefinite debate on attributes,and proposes to promote the quality of farmers’ cooperatives,create relaxing environment for the development of cooperatives and build China’s “ Four rounds” as a driving force for the development of farmers’ cooperatives to encourage in-depth Union and cooperation among farmers.

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王玉斌,郭娜英,赵铁桥.德国农民合作社考察及其启示[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2020,(5):160-167

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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-12
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