中国农村宅基地制度改革的演进逻辑与未来走向
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国家社会科学基金重点项目“地权界定方式与农地流转效应”(18AJY017);广东省教育厅创新团队项目“中国农地制度改革创新:赋权、盘活与土地财产权益的实现”(2017WCXTD001);广东省普通高校重点研究项目“农地确权方式对农户施肥行为的影响”(2019WZDXM008)


The Evolution and Direction of China’s Rural Homestead System Reform
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    摘要:

    中国农村宅基地兼具居住保障和财产功能。随着中国经济社会快速发展转型,宅基地的功能定位正在从“居住保障导向中谋求财产功能”转化为“财产功能导向中维护居住保障”。为适应宅基地的功能定位变化,提出“集体所有,赋权盘活,住有所居”为主线的基本制度架构,认为改革重点在于:一是强化宅基地用益物权,明确宅基地使用权的抵押、转让权能,为赋权盘活宅基地提供具备法律保障的制度基础;二是宅基地获取方式从“无偿取得”改为“有偿取得”,持有期限从长期到限定70年,这既是解决目前超占宅基地的有效途径,也为房地分离抵押、转让提供了可供选择的路径;三是多种形式解决农民的住房保障问题,逐步从基于身份权的宅基地保障转向基于公民权的居住权保障。

    Abstract:

    China’s rural homestead system have both the function of housing security and property. However,with the rapid development and transformation of China’s economy,the functional positioning of homesteads is transforming from “seeking property function in the orientation of housing security” to “maintaining housing security in the orientation of property function”. In order to adapt to this transformation,we propose a basic system structure of “collective ownership,empowerment and revitalization,and housing ensuring”,and point out the focus of the reform are:first,strengthen the usufructuary right of homestead and clarify the mortgage and transfer of homestead use right,so as to provide a legalized system basis for empowering and revitalizing homestead; second,the acquisition of homestead need to be changed from “free acquisition” to “paid acquisition”,and the holding period should be changed from “long-term” to “70 years”,which is not only an effective way to solve the problems of homestead over-occupied,but also provides an alternative path for the homestead mortgage and transfer; third,solve the housing security problem of farmers via various forms,and gradually shift the homestead security based on identity right to the housing security based on citizenship right.

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胡新艳,许金海,陈 卓.中国农村宅基地制度改革的演进逻辑与未来走向[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2021,(1):26-32

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-11
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