G-L index,BI index,MIIT index and VIIT index are used to measure agricultural intra-industry trade between China and Countries along the “Belt and Road” (simply referred as “the Countries”) from 2000 to 2018,and its influencing factors are further empirically analyzed. The results indicate that the total level of agricultural intra-industry trade between China and the Countries is relatively low,but it still involves almost half of the agricultural products of both sides. The increment of agricultural trade between China and the Countries mainly comes from inter-industry trade,and the effect of intra-industry trade tends to be increasingly noticeable in which the vertical intra-industry trade is the major contributor which has shown significant increase since the launch of the “Belt and Road” Initiative. There are obvious regional differences in agricultural trade between China and the Countries. The trade with South East Asia and South Asia is mainly intra-industry trade since the launch of “Belt and Road” Initiative,while with West Asia and Egypt,Central Asia and Mongolia,and Central and Eastern Europe and Western Europe is always inter-industry trade. Other factors that have significant impact on agricultural intra-industry trade between China and the Countries are relative economic scale,trade distance,product differences,market outward-ward openness,foreign investment,trade imbalance,income inequality,launch of the “Belt and Road” Initiative and signing of free trade agreement.