水电工程移民相对贫困特征与致贫因素识别
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国家自然科学基金项目“生计资本视角下西南地区水利水电建设工程移民收入变化机理研究”(71663059)。


Identification of Relative Poverty Characteristics and Poverty Causing Factors of Emigrants in Hydropower Projects
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    摘要:

    基于2014—2018年金沙江流域水电工程移民的追踪调研数据,采用多维贫困测度方法与空间断点回归的设计思路对水电移民相对贫困特征及致贫因素进行实证分析。研究发现,移民群体相对贫困特征主要表现为发展性贫困与消费型贫困。受水库建设影响,大部分移民家庭生产维度受严重剥夺,自然条件与人力资本方面的制约使移民家庭不仅难以维持原有生计,而且在生计转型过程中受阻,造成移民后家庭生计构建困难,生产恢复缓慢,陷入发展性贫困;水电修建使移民家庭市场参与程度被迫提高,人均生活成本增加超过2000元对家庭资本积累十分不利,在加剧了移民群体发展性贫困状况同时增加了日后返贫的可能;最后,这些贫困特征在兼业生产家庭与中低收入水平家庭中体现更加明显。政策完善应致力于发展性贫困和消费型贫困的识别与治理,有效缓解群体间与群体内部发展差距扩大状况,避免政策失灵带来新的风险。

    Abstract:

    Based on the tracking survey data of hydropower project migration in Jinsha River basin from 2014 to 2018,this paper analyzes the relative poverty characteristics of hydropower migrants and the causes of poverty using multi-dimensional poverty measurement method and spatial regression discontinuities. The study found that the relative poverty characteristics of migrants are mainly developmental poverty and consumption based poverty. First,the production of most immigrant families was seriously damaged by the reservoir construction. Restricted by natural conditions and human capital,immigrant families not only found it difficult to maintain their original livelihood,but also were blocked in the process of livelihood transformation,resulting in difficulties in the construction of family livelihood after immigration,and therefore fell into developmental poverty. Second,the construction of hydropower has increased the market participation of migrant families. After immigration,the increase of per capita living cost up to more than 2000 RMB is very unfavorable to the accumulation of family capital,which aggravates the developmental poverty of the immigrant group and increases the possibility of returning to poverty in the future. Third,these characteristics of poverty are more obvious in part-time working families and families with low to moderate income levels. Policy improvement should focus on the identification and governance of such poverty,effectively alleviating the widening development gap between and within groups,and avoiding new risks brought by policy failure.

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王湛晨,李国平,刘富华.水电工程移民相对贫困特征与致贫因素识别[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2021,(2):23-31

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-15
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