知识产权视角下农民品种保护的规范构造
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国家社会科学基金项目“植物新品种知识产权保护困境与制度创新研究”(16BFX168)


Normative Structure of Protection of Farmers’ Varieties from the Perspective of Intellectual Property
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    摘要:

    农民品种是由一定区域的农民以集体创新的方式,经过长期培育并被证明有特殊品性的品种,具有群体性、地域性和传承性。农民品种的价值是其所包含的遗传信息,适合用将信息作为保护客体的知识产权制度加以保护,但与保护私人创新成果的知识产权制度应有所差异。其取得应符合较低要求的可识别性,且需经过注册登记程序。农民品种的保护模式主要包括特别权形式的积极性保护与防御性保护。在特别权保护下,农民品种权权利主体分两个层次,即静态的权利归属于国家,动态的权利由特定社区农民集体行使。具有集体属性的农民品种权不得转让,但权利人享有基于许可的知情同意权和惠益分享权;同时应设置合理使用、强制许可及保护期限等限制制度,以实现权益平衡,促进植物育种领域的创新。

    Abstract:

    Farmers’ varieties with collective,territorial and inherited attributes are cultivated by farmers through collective innovation in certain areas for a long time and are proved to be of special quality. The value of farmers’ varieties is the genetic information they contain which can be properly protected by intellectual property systems that takes information as the object of protection,but the application should be different from intellectual property systems protecting private innovation. The acquisition of farmers’ varieties should meet comparatively low requirement of identifiability and be subject to registration procedures. The protection modes of farmers’ varieties mainly consist of active protection in the form of sui generis right and defensive protection. Under protection of sui generis right,subject of farmers’ varieties right is divided into two levels,i.e. static right of farmers’ varieties attributed to the state,and dynamic right of farmers’ varieties exercised by the farmer collective of specific community. Farmers’ varieties right with collective attribute shall not be transferable. But obligee could enjoy the rights of informed consent and benefit sharing based on permission. Some restrictive systems of rational use,compulsory license and duration of protection should be set up at the same time,in order to achieve the balance of interests,and promote innovations in the field of plant breeding.

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万志前,张文斐.知识产权视角下农民品种保护的规范构造[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2021,(2):148-155

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-15
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