要素配置调整对我国粮食劳动生产率的影响——来自玉米的实证
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国家自然科学基金项目“基于世界贸易组织规则适应性的我国粮食价格支持政策改革研究”(71963005);贵州省农林经济管理国内一流学科建设项目“乡村振兴与新时代农业支持保护制度研究”(GNYL\[2017\]002)。


Impact of Factor Allocation Adjustment on Grain Labor Productivity in China ——Evidence from Maize
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    摘要:

    伴随着要素禀赋变化和诱致性农业技术变迁,农户对生产要素投入结构做出适应性调整,进而影响农业劳动生产率增长。基于扩展的Cobb-Douglas函数,构建要素配置比例对劳动生产率影响的弹性系数,并以玉米为例实证检验了要素配置比例变化对我国粮食劳动生产率的影响。研究表明:减少劳动投入,增加化肥、机械等投入,配置在单位劳动上的物质技术装备得到明显改善,要素配置比例调整有效促进了玉米劳动生产率的提升。在全国层面,化肥-劳动配比弹性系数显著为正,对玉米劳动生产率的促进作用最为显著;改善种子-劳动配比、机械-劳动配比也可以提升玉米劳动生产率。在产区层面,华北产区化肥、种子、机械、农药四种要素与劳动的配比弹性系数都显著为正;东北产区农药-劳动配比弹性系数为负;西南产区机械-劳动配比影响不显著。与劳动节约型要素相比,土地节约型要素与劳动配比的改善对玉米劳动生产率的影响更为显著,这对全国和产区两个层面都适用。据此建议:一方面应坚定不移地推进劳动力转移就业,另一方面要提升农业要素质量和利用效率,优化要素配置结构,尤其要注重要素之间的匹配、技术装备的集成和农业社会化服务的发展。

    Abstract:

    With the change of agricultural endowment and induced technological progress in China,farm households transform inputs structure accordingly,which contributes to the growth of labor productivity.This paper constructs elastic coefficient of input factor allocation ratio affecting labor productivity and examines the effect of factor allocation ratio change on labor productivity of crops with maize as the example based on the expanded cobb-douglas production function.The results show that:factor allocation structure adjustment enhances maize’s labor productivity because technical equipment allocated to unit labor has been improved significantly through increasing the use of fertilizer and machinery and reducing the labor.At the national level,the elasticity coefficient of fertilizer-labor ratio is significantly positive having most remarkable effect on maize’s labor productivity which can also be improved by increasing the seed-labor ratio and machinery-labor ratio.At the provincial level,the elasticity coefficient of fertilizer-labor ratio,seed-labor ratio,machinery-labor ratio and pesticide-labor ratio are significantly positive in North China.The elasticity coefficient of pesticide-labor ratio is negative in Northeast China and the elasticity coefficient of machinery-labor ratio isn’t significant in Southwest China.Compared with labor-saving factor,land-saving factor has more significant effect on maize’s labor productivity,which applies to both national and provincial level.The policy implication is that on the one hand we should unswervingly promote the transfer of labor force employment,on the other hand,we should improve the quality and utilization efficiency of input factors and optimize the structure of factor allocation,especially pay attention to the matching of the inputs factor,the integration of technical equipment and the development of agricultural socialized services.

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朱满德,张 琪.要素配置调整对我国粮食劳动生产率的影响——来自玉米的实证[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2020,(06):28-36

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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-11
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