人力资本对农民工返乡行为的影响——基于代际差异视角的分析
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国家自然科学基金项目“返乡动机、人力资本与返乡农民工农业生产行为研究”(71703124);西北农林科技大学基本科研业务费资助项目“西北贫困地区经济林经营效率评价研究”(2018RWSK04)


The Impact of Human Capital on the Behavior of of Migrant Workers Returning Home——Based on the Perspective of Intergenerational Differences
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    摘要:

    随着新时代的到来,农民工返乡行为受到其人力资本异化的深刻影响。基于经典托达罗模型,引入人力资本相关变量,构建拓展的托达罗迁移决策模型,通过调查问卷采集陕西省526户农民工的样本数据,针对农民工未外出、在外务工未返乡和外出务工已返乡三种就业流动状态,运用Multinomial Logistic模型分析人力资本对劳动力行为决策的影响机制,并进一步利用分样本回归模型探讨新生代、中生代和老一代农民工群体的返乡决策差异。结果表明:人力资本因素对农民工返乡行为存在显著影响,表现为受教育程度低、劳动年限长、具有非农技能的农民工返乡概率更大;分样本回归模型分析则表明老一代农民工的此类返乡特征更加突出;另外,研究还发现女性明显偏向于做出不外出和返乡决策,年龄大的农民工更偏向于选择返乡。鉴于此,提出以下对策建议:加强农村地区教育资源投入,提高农民工受教育水平;加强农民工的职业技能培训,提高其择业就业能力;加强农村地区基础设施建设,优化农民工返乡就业环境。

    Abstract:

    With the arrival of the new era,the behavior of migrant workers returning home is deeply affected by the alienation of their human capital. Based on the classical Todaro model,this paper introduces the relevant variables of human capital and constructed an extended Todaro migration decision model. Through the questionnaire of 526 migrant workers in Shanxi Province,the paper uses the Multinomial Logistic model to analyze human capital’s influence mechanism on labor behavior decision,and further studies the difference of returning home decision between the new generation,the middle generation and the old generation by the sub-sample model in view of the rural migrant workers in three employment flow states,“not going out”,“working without returning” and “migrant workers returning home”. The results of the empirical study verifies that human capital factors have a significant impact on the returning behavior of migrant workers,which is manifested in the fact that migrant workers with low education level,long working years and non-agricultural skills are more likely to return to their hometowns. The sub-sample regression model shows that this returning characteristics of the older generation of migrant workers are more prominent. In addition,the study also finds that women are significantly more likely to make the decision not to go out and to return home,and older migrant workers are more likely to choose to return home. In view of this,the paper puts forward the following countermeasures and suggestions:first,we should increase investment of educational resources in rural areas to raise the educational level of migrant workers; second,we should strengthen vocational training for migrant workers to improve their employability; third,we should consolidate infrastructure construction in rural areasto optimize the environment for migrant workers to return home and find jobs.

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李 敏,阎晓博,黄晓慧.人力资本对农民工返乡行为的影响——基于代际差异视角的分析[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2021,(1):90-98

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-11
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