王国刚,杨春,王明利.中国现代畜牧业发展水平测度及其地域分异特征[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2018,(6):7-13
中国现代畜牧业发展水平测度及其地域分异特征
Measurement and Spatial Distribution of the Development Level of Animal Husbandry’s Modernization in China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:现代畜牧业  空间分异  规模化  分工
英文关键词:modern animal husbandry  spatial differentiation  scale  division of labor
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-35-22);国家自然科学基金项目“中国草食畜牧产业空间农区转移机理及其适应性研究”(41871184); 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(161005201802-1)。
作者单位
王国刚 中国农业科学院 农业经济与发展研究所,北京 100081 
杨春 中国农业科学院 农业经济与发展研究所,北京 100081 
王明利 中国农业科学院 农业经济与发展研究所,北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      对产业发展水平和地域分异特征的把握是国家制定产业发展战略、做出产业布局调整的重要科学依据。构建现代畜牧业评价指标体系,对中国省域畜牧业发展水平进行评价,并揭示其地域分异特征及类型区。结果表明:我国现代畜牧业发展水平整体上处于快速成长阶段,但存在明显的地域差异性,呈现出从东部→东北部→中部→西部依次递减的趋势;畜牧产业地域分工逐步显现,极大地促进了产业的发展,但物质装备水平低,标准化规模养殖场数量少,饲料工业和种畜禽业支撑能力弱,科技人员配备不足,劳动生产率低等问题成为制约我国畜牧业现代化发展的重大短板;中国现代畜牧业发展水平可划分为六大类型区,各类型区应根据“区情、畜情”从不同的侧重点制定现阶段及未来的发展思路与策略。基于此,提出政策建议:推进标准化规模养殖场建设,提升养殖场标准化水平;引导建立多渠道、多主体的科技推广机制,提升科技支撑能力;扶持畜牧业专业合作组织发展,提升行业整体竞争力和组织化程度;科学确定养殖区域布局规划,因地制宜指导各地畜牧业合理适度发展。
英文摘要:
      It is very important to fully understand the level of industrial development and geographical differentiation,which are the scientific basis to formulate industrial development strategy and to make industrial layout adjustment. From a geographical perspective,this paper constructs the evaluation index system at first,and then evaluates the development level of modern animal husbandry at provincial level,and reveals its regional differentiation characteristics and types. The results showed that:the development level of modern animal husbandry in China is in rapid growth stage,but there are obvious regional differences,showing a decreasing trend from east to northeast to middle to west. The regional division of livestock industry gradually emerged,which greatly promoted the development of the industry. However,there are many problems in the animal husbandry,such as low level of material equipment,the small number of standardized scale farms,the weak support ability of feed industry and livestock and poultry industry,the shortage of scientific and technological personnel and the low labor productivity,all of which have greatly restricted the development of animal husbandry modernization in China. Animal Husbandry’s modernization in China could be divided into six types,and different measures should be taken for different priorities. According to these results,main policies for animal husbandry modernization are formulated. Firstly,it is necessary to promote the construction of standardized-scale farms and enhance the standardization of farms. Secondly,the supporting ability of science and technology could be raised by setting up a multi-channel and multi-entity mechanism. Thirdly,the condition for animal husbandry professional cooperative organizations should be further improved to enhance the overall competitiveness of the industry. Finally,we need to scientifically determine the breeding area layout to guide the rational development of animal husbandry appropriately.
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