吴乐,靳乐山.生态补偿扶贫背景下农户生计资本影响因素研究[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2018,(6):55-61
生态补偿扶贫背景下农户生计资本影响因素研究
Study on Influential Factors of Peasant Households’ Livelihood Capital under the Policy of Eco-compensation Poverty Alleviation
  
DOI:
中文关键词:生态补偿  扶贫  生计资本  似不相关回归
英文关键词:eco-compensation  poverty reduction  livelihood capital  seeming-unrelated regression
基金项目:国家发改委西部司重点调研项目“贫困地区生态综合补偿政策思路研究”(XBS16-A1)。
作者单位
吴乐 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院/中国生态补偿政策研究中心北京 100193 
靳乐山 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院/中国生态补偿政策研究中心北京 100193 
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中文摘要:
      随着“生态补偿脱贫一批”的提出,生态补偿被赋予了扶贫解困的新使命。量化研究生态补偿对农户生计资本的影响,有利于揭示现有生态补偿政策的实际扶贫效果。基于英国国际发展部提出的可持续生计框架,构建测度指标测算了贵州省3个贫困县432个农户样本的生计资本,通过似不相关估计分析农户生计资本的影响因素。结果表明:参与生态补偿政策农户的总体生计资本水平低于未参与政策农户,其中参与政策农户的自然资本高于未参与政策农户,人力资本、物质资本和社会资本低于未参与政策农户。不同类型的补偿方式对农户生计资本的影响差异明显,现金型直接补偿侧重于增加农户用于发展的物质条件、改善农户生产生活的脆弱性背景,而公益岗位型间接补偿则有利于提升农户的内生发展能力,两者在促进农户的生计资本建设上具有一定的互补性。为此,在贫困地区需要进一步加大生态补偿的公共财政投入,并充分发挥不同补偿项目的协同作用,让农户真正从生态保护中获益。
英文摘要:
      With proposition of the “Poverty Alleviation for A Group of People by Eco-compensation”,eco-compensation has been granted with a new mission of poverty alleviation. Quantitative study of eco-compensation influences on peasant households’ capitals helps to reveal actual poverty alleviation effects of existing eco-compensation policies. Based on the Sustainable Livelihood Analysis Framework proposed by Department for International Development in Britain,the measurement index was established to measure and calculate livelihood capitals of 432 peasant household samples in three poverty-stricken counties in Guizhou Province. The influential factors of peasant households’ livelihood capitals were analyzed through seemingly unrelated estimation. Research results show that:the overall livelihood capital level of peasant households included in eco-compensation policy is lower than that of peasant households excluded from eco compensation policy,wherein the natural capital of peasant households included is higher than that of peasant households excluded,and their human capital,material capital and social capital are lower than those of peasant households excluded. Different types of compensation manners could bring obvious different influences on peasant households’ livelihood capital. Direct cash compensation focuses on improving material conditions for the future development of peasant households and improving fragile backgrounds in their production and life; indirect compensation based on public benefit jobs could enhance peasant households’ endogenous development ability; both of them could play a complementary role to promote livelihood capital construction of peasant households. For this purpose,it is necessary to further increase public fiscal investments of eco-compensation in poverty-stricken areas and give play to cooperative roles of different compensation projects so as to let peasant households obtain substantial benefits from ecologic protection.
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