叶敬忠,贺聪志,许惠娇.生计框架视角的农政问题与农政变迁[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2019,(1):8-15
生计框架视角的农政问题与农政变迁
The Agrarian Issue and Agrarian Change from the Perspective of Livelihood Framework
  
DOI:
中文关键词:生计框架  农政问题  农政变迁  国家发展
英文关键词:livelihood framework  agrarian question  agrarian change  national development
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重点项目“城乡一体化进程中的农村变迁研究”(13ASH007)。
作者单位
叶敬忠 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院北京 100193 
贺聪志 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院北京 100193 
许惠娇 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院北京 100193 
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中文摘要:
      生计框架倡导一种“自下而上”的底层动员和地方主导的发展。其基本假设是“穷人并非一无所有”。它以农户为基本分析单位,从农户的优势而非需求入手,分析其生计资本、内在潜力以及采取的生计策略。该框架侧重于从减贫的维度切入农村问题,倡导一种基于穷人现实和“以人为中心”的农村发展。它认为农业只是穷人获取生计资源的一种生计策略,强调关注个体和农户所从事的职业、维持生计的多种方式和复杂生计活动的组合。它将农民视为具有能动性的、能利用各种资源积极构建生计策略且有能力改变社会结构的行动者。它关注土地与贫困的动态变化过程、社会结构对土地资源获取的影响以及土地资源的分配、组合与利用的微观实践和背后的权力与政治关系。生计框架的工具化和制度化在一定程度上掩盖了复杂的政治和权力关系,因此受到政治经济学等领域学者的批评。
英文摘要:
      Livelihood framework advocates a bottom-up mobilization and locally-led development.With the basic assumption of “it is not true that the poor have nothing”,livelihood framework takes the household as an analytical unit.It starts from the advantages of the household rather than its needs,so as to analyze its livelihood assets,inherent potentials and livelihood strategies.Livelihood framework tackles rural issues from the dimension of poverty alleviation,and advocates a pro-poor and people-centered rural development.It considers agriculture as one of the strategies for the poor to obtain their livelihood resources,and emphasizes the importance of multiple job-holdings,the multiple ways of maintaining livelihoods,and the combination of complex livelihood activities of individuals and households.It considers farmers as social actors who can actively construct livelihood strategies by utilizing various livelihood resources,and also have the capacity to change social structure.It pays attention to the dynamic processes of land and poverty,the impacts of social structure on the access to land resources,the allocation of land resources,the combination and utilization of micro-level practices,and the power and political relations behind.Because of its instrumentalism and institutionalization,the livelihood framework has to some extent concealed the complicated political and power relations,and thus been criticized by scholars in political economy and other fields.
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