孙致陆.贸易开放背景下国际小麦贸易市场势力实证分析[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2019,(4):1-14
贸易开放背景下国际小麦贸易市场势力实证分析
An Empirical Analysis on the Trade Market Power in International Wheat Trade under the Background of Trade Openness
  
DOI:
中文关键词:贸易开放  国际小麦贸易  市场势力  市场定价权  剩余需求弹性模型
英文关键词:trade openness  international wheat trade  market power  market pricing power  residual demand elasticity model
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目“贸易开放背景下世界主粮贸易演进机理及中国对策:基于社会网络的视角”(71703157);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项“贸易开放背景下国际小麦贸易市场定价权测算研究”(161005201901-2-3)。
作者单位
孙致陆 中国农业科学院 农业经济与发展研究所北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      贸易市场势力是衡量贸易市场定价权的重要指标。在分析1994—2016年世界小麦贸易市场结构演变趋势的基础上,通过构建扩展的剩余需求弹性(RDE)模型测算并比较分析了美国等6个主要小麦出口国在意大利等8个主要小麦进口国的卖方贸易市场势力。研究发现,近年来,世界小麦出口市场集中度仍处在较高水平,少数出口国占有大多数出口份额的格局并未改变;世界小麦进口市场集中度则明显下降,各进口国的进口份额进一步分散。美国等6个主要小麦出口国的小麦出口都具有明显的卖方贸易市场势力;受到汇率、生产者价格、政府政策等因素的影响,主要小麦出口国卖方贸易市场势力的国别分布存在显著差异,且各自只存在于特定的主要小麦进口国市场上;在中国小麦进口市场上,澳大利亚小麦的卖方贸易市场势力较强,美国和加拿大小麦的卖方贸易市场势力则均相对较弱。
英文摘要:
      Trade market power is an important index to measure the market pricing power in international trade.Based on the analysis on the evolution trend of market structure of world wheat trade from 1994 to 2016 and employment of an extended residual demand elasticity (RDE) model,this paper estimates and compares the seller trade market power of six major wheat exporting countries,namely USA,Canada,France,Australia,Argentina and Russia,in eight major wheat importing countries,namely Italy,Egypt,Indonesia,Brazil,Japan,Spain,Algeria and China.It’s found that:(1) The concentration of world wheat export market in recent years is still at a high level and the market pattern that a small number of exporting countries occupy the majority of export share maintains.(2) The concentration level of world wheat import market has decreased significantly,and the import share of importing countries has further dispersed.The wheat export in all the six wheat exporting countries has significant seller trade market power.Influenced by exchange rate,producer price and government policies,there are distinct differences in country distribution of the seller trade market power of the six major wheat exporting countries,which only exist in certain major wheat importing countries.In China’s wheat import market,Australia outweighs USA and Canada in terms of the seller trade market power.
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