杨华.农村婚姻挤压的类型及其生成机制[J].华中农业大学学报(社科),2019,(4):25-34
农村婚姻挤压的类型及其生成机制
Types of Rural Marriage Squeeze and the Formation Mechanisms
  
DOI:
中文关键词:性别失衡  梯度挤压  婚姻成本  光棍
英文关键词:gender imbalance  gradient squeeze  marriage cost  bachelor
基金项目:国家社会科学基金青年项目“乡村振兴战略背景下农村‘光棍’问题的社会学研究”(18CSH004)。
作者单位
杨华 武汉大学 社会学系湖北 武汉430072 
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中文摘要:
      婚姻挤压是指由于适婚男女性别比失衡导致其中一种性别的人口无法找到配偶的现象。我国农村婚姻挤压主要挤压的是适婚男性农民,它包括宏观层面的性别挤压、中观层面的梯度挤压和微观层面的竞争挤压等机制。其中,性别挤压机制挤压的主要是农村中的适婚男性,而农村适婚女性较少被挤压;梯度挤压机制挤压的是作为婚姻市场低洼地带的自然和经济条件落后地区的适婚男性农民,而作为婚姻市场优势地带的自然和经济条件相对较好地区的适婚男性农民被挤压得较少;竞争挤压机制挤压的主要是在婚姻市场低洼地带内部的婚姻市场竞争中无法支付高额婚姻成本的适婚男性,而该地区家庭条件相对较好的适婚男性被挤压的程度相对较低。农村适婚性别比失衡的社会后果最终由处于婚姻市场低洼地带的底层家庭的适婚男性承担,他们最容易成为农村找不到配偶的“光棍”。
英文摘要:
      Marriage squeeze refers to the phenemonon that some of the rural men or women cannot find a spouse because of the imbalance between the number of men and women available to marry in a certain society.In rural China,marriage squeeze mainly squeezes the male peasants of marriageable age at three levels:gender squeeze,gradient squeeze,and competition squeeze.Of these levels,the gender squeeze mechanism mainly squeezes rural marriageable men,while rural marriageable women are less squeezed; the gradient squeeze mechanism mainly squeezes marriageable male peasants in naturally and economically backward rural areas,while marriageable male peasants in rural areas with better natural and economical conditions are less squeezed; the competition squeeze mechanism mainly squeezes marriageable men whose families cannot afford the high marriage cost in the internal competition in the low-lying areas of the marriage market,while marriageable men from richer families in these areas are less squeezed.The social consequences of the gender imbalance between marriageable men and women will be ultimately borne by marriageable men from poor families in the low-lying areas of the marriage market,and these men are most likely to become bachelors unable to find a spouse in rural areas.
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